Toner refers to a lotion designed to cleanse the skin and shrink pores, usually used on the face. Toner is applied to the forehead, cheeks ands neck on a pad of cotton wool immediately after cleansing. Toners, fresheners, and astringents restore the pH balance of the acid mantle; remove any remaining makeup that was not cleaned up, oily cleanser, or soap film. After toning, blot the face almost dry with a tissue and apply the moisturiser. There are several types of toners. Skin bracers or fresheners are the mildest form of toners; they contain virtually no alcohol (0-10%), water, and a humectant such as glycerine.
Humectants help to keep the moisture in the upper layers of the epidermis by preventing it from evaporating. A popular example of this is rosewater. Skin tonics are slightly stronger and contain a small quantity of alcohol (up to 20%), water and a moistening ingredient. Orange flower water is an example of a skin tonic.
Skin tonics are suitable for use on normal, combination, and oily skin. Astringents are the strongest form of toner and contain a high balance of alcohol (20-60%), antiseptic ingredients, water, and a humectant ingredient. These are commonly recommended for oily skins as they are drying, but note that the removal of oil from the skin can lead to superfluous oil production as the skin tries to compensate for this and prevent moisture loss. Cosmetic skin care toners basically contain alcohol and water. The common herbs used in toners include witch hazel, geranium, honey, lemon, ivy, sage, nettle, and burdock. Witch hazel has a tendency to dry the skin.
The best skin care toner should be a refreshing blend of natural skin care ingredients and herbs that hydrate and tone the skin. Depending on the formula, the typical organic skin care additions are glycerine, witch hazel (promotes even skin tone), menthol, camphor, boric acid, rose water and alum. Extracts of ginger, cinnamon, and burnet absorb extra oil and regulate sebum production.
Toners with essential vitamins A, B, C and E slough away any remaining impurities and create balanced skin texture. Homemade skin care can be prepared using tomato juice, cucumber combined with yoghurt (for normal skin), mint extract with alum (for dry skin), alcohol with alum, and honey pus egg (for oily skin).
Juliet Cohen writes articles for skin care blog and hairstyles picture. She also writes articles for celebrity hairstyles.